英語④人工知能と将棋

There are two fields in research on artificial intelligence. One is to recreate human intelligence using machines; the other is reproduce intellectual activities using machines. For example, the former includes humanoid robots that appear in SF films, (1)_____ the latter includes shogi software that is commercially available. I’d like to discuss here the pros and cons (2)_____ with advance and utilization of the latter field by taking development of shogi software for example. To go straight to the (3)_____ line, the advantage is that you can enhance the level of your intellectual activities by using those AIs as a coach or an opponent. The disadvantage is that whether you can make a good use of those AIs (4)_____ your ability, leading to a gap in competitiveness among players (cf. AI-divide).
(1)
A. with
B. while
C. despite
D. if

(2)
A. associate
B. associating
C. associated
D. association

(3)
A. first
B. last
C. top
D. bottom

(4)
A. affect
B. to affect
C. would be affected
D. will affect

Shogi is a Japanese board game where you will win or lose. The stronger you are, the more games you will win. For example, Yoshiharu Habu, one of the strongest shogi players, boasts the winning percentage of over seventy. Around 2010 shogi software finally (5)_____ professional players, as had been predicted since around 2000. Even people other than shogi fans came to be interested in a question; which is stronger, humans or the software? In 2013, the games between professional players and shogi software (the 2nd Dennou-sen), which was mainly sponsored by DWANGO, achieved a great success and drew media and public (6)_____. A few years after the event, however, people came to admit that humans could not defeat computer programs. Since then, especially after 2016, computer shogi has not been widely discussed in the media. However, it does not necessarily mean that those shogi programs that are stronger than human players have made the games between human players (7)_____. In 2016 Sota Fuji, who was promoted to a professional player that year, began to play an active role in the shogi world, and the media reported heated games between human players. It reminded people once again (8)_____ how interesting shogi was as a drama played by humans. Then I felt that shogi software was relegated from “a humans’ rival” to “a high-spec computer.”
(5)
A. equaled
B. refunded
C. purchased
D. subscribed

(6)
A. extinction
B. enrollment
C. attention
D. auditorium

(7)
A. to bore
B. boring
C. bored
D. having bored

(8)
A. over
B. like
C. under
D. of

When considering from players’ point of view, it probably differed from one player to another, one shogi fan to another, (9)_____ to regard shogi software as a coach or a competitor and learn from it, or to ignore it as just a high-spec computer. It seems that several factors affected those decisions such as how far shogi software had been developed then and how (10)_____ they were toward the software. Some players still regard the software as their rival, others may have given up defeating it. There were those who avoid using it for a reason other than their ability. When thinking more generally, artificial intelligence as a coach or a rival can lead to more people dropping out from the field. This (11)_____ not only to the world of shogi but to other fields such as economic activities. The more people give up making use of AI, the bigger gap there will be in their abilities. This is huge disadvantage of AI in light of the issues such as social (12)_____.
(9)
A. what
B. who
C. whether
D. whichever

(10)
A. tolerate
B. tolerated
C. tolerant
D. tolerance

(11)
A. applies
B. clarifies
C. impresses
D. expects

(12)
A. questionnaire
B. temperature
C. anniversary
D. polarization

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