There are two fields in research on artificial intelligence. One is to recreate human intelligence using machines; the other is reproduce intellectual activities using machines. For example, the former includes humanoid robots that appear in SF films, (1)_____ the latter includes shogi software that is commercially available. I’d like to discuss here the pros and cons (2)_____ with advance and utilization of the latter field by taking development of shogi software for example. To go straight to the (3)_____ line, the advantage is that you can enhance the level of your intellectual activities by using those AIs as a coach or an opponent. The disadvantage is that whether you can make a good use of those AIs (4)_____ your ability, leading to a gap in competitiveness among players (cf. AI-divide).
まず、空所の後にはthe latter includesというSVの構造が来ているので接続詞を選びます。さらに、この文はthe former includes ～、 the latter includes …「前者は～を含み、後者は…を含む」という対照を表すものになっています。それを考えれば適切な接続詞はwhile「一方で～」だと分かります。the former「前者」the latter「後者」という表現も重要です。
まず選択肢に並んでいる動詞associateの基本的な用法を確認しましょう。associate A with B「AとBを関連付ける」⇒ A is associated with B「AはBに関連している」これを踏まえて空所の周辺を見ると、直後に前置詞withが来ていることから、the pros and cons (associated with advance and utilization ～)、これは名詞を分詞のかたまりが修飾する構文です。「～の発展と使用に関する長所と短所」という構造になっていると判断することが出来きます。
bottom line「結論、最終損益」という表現が問われています。to go straight to the bottom lineで「結論を先に言ってしまえば」という意味です。
B. to affect
C. would be affected
D. will affect
that節の構造を考えて解答します。[whether you can make a good use of those AIs] (4)_____ your ability 以上のようにthat節の中には他に動詞がないことから、空所には動詞が入ると分かります。whetherの節は抽象的な内容で単数扱いなのでaffectは誤りです。意味を考えればwould be affectedのように受動態にするのも意味が通らないため、will affectが正解だと判断します。
Shogi is a Japanese board game where you will win or lose. The stronger you are, the more games you will win. For example, Yoshiharu Habu, one of the strongest shogi players, boasts the winning percentage of over seventy. Around 2010 shogi software finally (5)_____ professional players, as had been predicted since around 2000. Even people other than shogi fans came to be interested in a question; which is stronger, humans or the software? In 2013, the games between professional players and shogi software (the 2nd Dennou-sen), which was mainly sponsored by DWANGO, achieved a great success and drew media and public (6)_____. A few years after the event, however, people came to admit that humans could not defeat computer programs. Since then, especially after 2016, computer shogi has not been widely discussed in the media. However, it does not necessarily mean that those shogi programs that are stronger than human players have made the games between human players (7)_____. In 2016 Sota Fuji, who was promoted to a professional player that year, began to play an active role in the shogi world, and the media reported heated games between human players. It reminded people once again (8)_____ how interesting shogi was as a drama played by humans. Then I felt that shogi software was relegated from “a humans’ rival” to “a high-spec computer.”
mean that以下の構造を考えて解答しましょう。those shogi programs (that are ～ )have made the games between human players (7)_____. このように、空所は補語の位置にあるので、形容詞になる形を入れます。「試合が退屈」という時にはthe game is boring.と表現するので、ここでもboringという形が入ります。boredは「人が退屈している」という意味です。
remind A of B「AにBを思い出させる」という語法が問われています。It reminded people (once again) of how interesting ～構造が見えにくくなっている場合には副詞や挿入などをカッコで括って無視してみると、構造が理解できることがあります。
When considering from players’ point of view, it probably differed from one player to another, one shogi fan to another, (9)_____ to regard shogi software as a coach or a competitor and learn from it, or to ignore it as just a high-spec computer. It seems that several factors affected those decisions such as how far shogi software had been developed then and how (10)_____ they were toward the software. Some players still regard the software as their rival, others may have given up defeating it. There were those who avoid using it for a reason other than their ability. When thinking more generally, artificial intelligence as a coach or a rival can lead to more people dropping out from the field. This (11)_____ not only to the world of shogi but to other fields such as economic activities. The more people give up making use of AI, the bigger gap there will be in their abilities. This is huge disadvantage of AI in light of the issues such as social (12)_____.
空所のある文の全体像を把握しましょう。it differed ～ whether to V1 or to V2「V1すべきかV2すべきかは～によって異なっていた」主語のitはwhetherの節を指しています。what to Vやwho to Vでは後ろから名詞が欠けているはずです。たとえば what to do ×「何をすべきか」、who to talk to ×「誰と話すべきか」など。whether to V1 or to V2で「V1すべきかV2すべきか」という名詞節になります。
how + 形容詞or副詞「どれだけ～か」という構文がポイントです。空所前にはhowがあるので空所には形容詞を補います。選択肢の中で形容詞になり、意味が通るのはtolerant「寛容な」のみ。tolerant toward A「Aに対して寛容な」
apply to A「Aに当てはまり、適用される」というイディオムが問われています。clarify「～を明確化する」 impress「～に印象付ける」 expect「～を期待する」
social polarization「社会の二極化(格差拡大)」という表現が問われています。polarization「二極化」という単語は知っておくと良いでしょう。questionnaire「アンケート」temperature「気温」 anniversary「記念日」